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Based on text from the original book: Shades of Light: Photography and Australia 1839-1988
Gael Newton, 1988 Australian National Gallery


Chapter 9 Footnotes


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  1. The principal biographical source for Kauffmann is Leslie H. Beer, The Art of John Kauffmann (Melbourne, Alexander McCubbin, 1919). For a contemporary assessment of his role in Australian art photography see Gael Newton, 'John Kauffmann Art Photographer 1864-1942', Australasian Antique Collector. 20 (1980), pp. 114-20. The only large collection of Kauffmann's work is held by the Australian National Gallery, Canberra. Jack Cato in The Story of the Camera in Australia (Melbourne: Georgian House, 1955), p.148 claims Kauffmann was a friend and pupil of Horsley-Hinton but there is no evidence for this.

  2. His show was held in November 1910 and reviewed well, see The Weevil, Mr Kauffmann's One Man Show, H.P.f. (December 1910): pp.375-81. The seventy-four exhibits were mostly carbons. Evidently Henri Mallard had initiated the exhibition. See also the Argus 18 November 1910, p.8.

  3. The Sunraysia Wonder Book (Melbourne: C. J. DeGaris for the Australian Dried Fruits Association, n.d.).

  4. Print prices in these years ranged from several guineas. However pupils seem to have been an important source of income for Kauffmann. Janet Reiners, daughter of a South Australian studio photographer was sent to Melbourne c.1920s to study under Kauffmann. Reiners later operated the Reiners studio, Renmark before retiring in the 1940s. Information from Zel Seekamp a later partner in the studio. Ina Jones (w. 1930s) refers to a term of lessons with Kauffmarm in a letter to Harold Cazneaux of 27 August 1929, (held by the Cazneaux family, Sydney, transcript held by the Australian National Gallery).

  5. See claim by William Moore in The Story of Australian Art: From the Earliest known Art of the Continent to the Art of Today (Sydney: Angus and 11 Robertson, 1934), vol 11, p.223. See also Ann Galbally, Arthur Streeton (Melbourne: Lansdowne, 1969).

  6. Appleby's show was seen as an attempt to bridge the gap between camera and pastel work, see A.P.-R (July 1904): p.244. Cazneaux was aware of this show, see his report to the Photograms of the Year 1909, (1909) ,p.27. Kauffmann was, it seems, familiar with Cazneaux's plans for a one-man show as Cazneaux mentions meeting Kauffmann in Sydney in 1908 at the New South Wales Photographic Society rooms when he was already preparing for his forthcoming 1909 exhibition, see Cazneaux's article 'Landscape Photography' in Australian Photography 1947, ed. Oswald L. Ziegler, (Sydney: Gotham, 1947), p. 13. The joint Appleby-Adams showing was part of the Society of Artists exhibition in August at the Queen Victoria Building, Sydney.

  7. The portrait of 'Hop' is reproduced in Jack Cato, The Story of the Camera in Australia, op. cit., opposite p. 17 6. Cato claims Appleby was the first Australian photographer to devote his studio to Pictorial portraiture.

  8. See ch. 6 n. 7 1.

  9. Quoted in Jack Cato, The Story of the Camera in Australia, op. cit., p. 15 1. Cazneaux wrote a stream of letters to Cato in 1951 for the latter's use in compiling his book. The exact source of the quote has not been found though Cazneaux expresses similar sentiments in several letters. Original correspondence is held by the Cazneaux family, copies are held by the National Library of Australia, MS 541. Other letters from Cazneaux recording his recollections of Pictorialism are held in the Keast Burke Papers, Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, Sydney, ML A 2375. For biographical information on Cazneaux see Max Dupain and Alex Bolton, Cazneaux: Photographs by Harold Cazneaux 1878-1953 (Canberra: National Library of Australia, 1978).

  10. Cazneaux refers to Horsley-Hinton in his article 'Landscape Photography', Australian Photography 1947, op. cit., p. 14.

  11. 'Valdon, Our Artistic Workers, Mr Harold Cazneaux', A.P.J. (20 October, 1908): pp.289-99. Later in 1919 the H.Pj October issue was a 'Special Cazneaux Number'.

  12. 'Valdon, Our Artistic Workers: Mr Radford', A.P.J. (29 April 1909), pp.104-12. Radford's portrait in this article was taken by Kauffmann, suggesting an association between the two in Adelaide.

  13. Quoted in a report of the opening, 'A One Man Show', A.P.J. (March, 1909) p.88. If not the first solo exhibition of its type Cazneaux's show had the earliest single artist catalogue; Photographic Society of New South Wales, One Man Show by Mr Harold Casneaux [sic] March 9th and 23rd, 1909.

  14. A biography and reproductions of Stening's work can be found in the author's Silver and Grey: Fifty Years of Australian Photography 1900-1950 (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1980).

  15. A selection of Cazneaux's Sydney pictures are reproduced in Gael Newton and Philip Geeves, Philip Geeves Presents Cazneaux's Sydney 1904-1934 (Sydney: David Ell Press, 1980).

  16. Undated reviews, press clippings collection held by the Cazneaux family, Sydney.

  17. Harold Cazneaux; 'In and About the City with a Hand Camera', A.P.-R. (August and September 1910): pp.425-34, 489-94.

  18. A full bibliography to Cazneaux's publications and reproductions and an index has been compiled by Ginette de Gooijer, 'The Bamboo Blind: A Bibliography on Harold Cazneaux, Australian Photographer, 1878-1953'. B.Soc.Sc. (Librarianship) Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne.

  19. H. Snowden Ward commentary reprinted in 'The One Man Show of Harold Cazneaux' (a second one at the KODAK showrooms, Sydney, 1912), A.P.-R. (22 May 1912): p.294.

  20. The recording of the clean-up is dealt with in Max Kelly, A Certain Sydney 1900 (Sydney: Doak Press, 1972). See also his article 'More to the Obvious than Meets the Eye' Photofile (Winter 1983): p. 10- 11.

  21. A large collection of Whitling's work is held by the Australian War Memorial, Canberra. For his colour work see Appendix.

  22. See Gael Newton, 'Index to Australian Photographic Exhibitions 1847-1960'. Ms. Australian National Gallery, Canberra.

  23. See the review of his 1910 show, H.P.J (22 December 1910): p.381.

  24. Reproduced in Leslie H. Beer, The Art of John Kauffmann, op. cit., pl. 16.

  25. See John Taylor, Pictorial Photography in Great Britain 1900-1920 (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978).

  26. Reproduced in Martyn Jolly, Highlights and Soft Shadows: Pictorialism in Australian Photography (Canberra: Australian National Gallery, 1985).

  27. Little is known of Temple Stephens. A print is reproduced in Jack Cato, The Story of the Camera in Australia, op. cit., between pp. 160-6 1. A few prints are held by the Australian Photographic Society collection; Melbourne and the Melbourne Camera Club collection.

  28. For biography and reproduction of Deck's work see Gael Newton, Silver and Grey: Fifty Years of Australian Photography 1900-1950, op. cit., and Australian Pictorial Photography: A Survey of Art Photography from 1898 to 1938 (Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1979).

  29. Hurley had been making a name for himself with special effects photography since around 1906, see David P. Millar, From Snowdrift to Shellfire: Capt. James Francis (Frank) Hurley 1885-1962 (Sydney: David Ell Press, 1984), p. 16.

  30. See ch.10.

  31. See Gael Newton, an index to 'Australian Photographic Exhibitions 1847 to 1960', ms. held by the Australian National Gallery, Canberra.

  32. See comments by Joyner quoted in jean Waterhouse and Alison Carroll, Real Visions: the Life and Work of F. A. Joyner, South Australian Photographer 1863-1945 (Adelaide: Art Gallery of South Australia, 198 1).

  33. 'The Photographic Exhibition; H.P.J. (May 1911) editorial, pp. 129-30.

  34. See discussion of the British Pictorialists conservatism in John Taylor, Pictorial Photography in Great Britain 1900-1920 (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978).

  35. Cazneaux's correspondence with Jack Cato and Keast Burke suggests that he believed Streglitz's career had finished with his departure from the English Salons, see letter no. 13, mid 195 1, p. 1, begins 'Some later thoughts', ms. held by the Cazneaux family, photocopy Australian National Gallery, Canberra.

  36. The term 'Pictorial' was predominant by the 19 17 exhibition. See extensive review in the A.P.R. (December 1917) and H.P.J. (December 1917).

  37. Held by the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney. This collection holds a large group of works by Sydney Camera Circle members as well as the Circle's own collection of local and overseas works. For Bostock and other Pictorialists see Gael Newton, Silver and Grey, op. cit.

  38. Sydney Ure Smith, 'Some Notes on the Exhibits', A.P.-R (15 December 1917): pp.660-63.

  39. The early minutes of the Sydney Camera Circle have not been located.

  40. Bostock's war diaries are held by his daughter. An album of small prints from his tour of duty in Belgium is held by the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney as is the picture Dawn breaks cold-shrieking-bloody.

  41. Reproduced Alec Bolton and Max Dupain, Cazneaux; Photographs by Harold Cazneaux 1878-1953, op. cit., pl.20.

  42. See Harold Cazneaux, 'Photography for Australians: "Against the Light" Photography', The Lone Hand (15 April 1915): pp.291-94.

  43. A. J. Hill Griffiths, 'A Letter from Australia', Photograms of the Year 1901 (1901).

  44. Ian Cosier's biography, 'Jack Cato 1889-1971', B.A. Thesis, Fine Art Department, University of Melbourne, 1980 (copy held by the Australian National Gallery library), includes a bibliography of Cato's autobiographical and other writings as well as an assessment of his career.

  45. A biography of Mills is included in Barbara Hall and Jenni Mather. Australian Women Photographers 1840-1960 (Melbourne: Greenhouse, 1986), pp.49-50.

  46. Ibid., pp.37, 83.

  47. Held by the Mitchell Library, State 6 Library of NSW, Sydney. The Gilmore portrait has been reproduced as a postcard.

  48. For biographies of May and Mina Moore and Ruth Hollick see Barbara Hall and Jenni Mather, Australian Women Photographers 1840-1960, op. cit. A large collection of Hollick's negatives and some prints is held by the Australian National Gallery, Canberra.


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