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Tyers Mission Station Visitors' Book 1878-1909, held by the
La Trobe Library, Melbourne. Painters had been describing their
sketching tours in similar terms
since the 1840s, see Tim Bonyhady, Images in Opposition: Australian Landscape
Painting 1801-1890 (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1985), p.63.
a biographical account of Nicholas Caire see David P. Millar's
catalogue, Nicholas John Caire Photographer 183 7-1918 (Sydney:
of New South Wales, 1980). 1 am also grateful to David Millar for access
unpublished monograph on Caire.
of Kruger's portfolio are held by the La Trobe Library, Melbourne
and the National Gallery of Victoria,
Melbourne, dated c.1882 and 1886 respectively.
For accounts of Kruger see Jennie Boddington, Fred Kruger 1831-1888 (Melbourne:
National Gallery of Victoria, 1983), and Paul Fox, Geelong on Exhibition:
Image (Geelong, Victoria: Geelong Art Gallery, 1987).
the aesthetic expression of this socio-economic development
see Leigh Astbury,
City Bushmen: The Heidelberg School and the Rural Mythology
University Press, 1985) and Paul Fox, 'The Influence of Romanticism on
the Colonial Encounter with the Bush, 1870-1914', paper delivered at
of Australia conference, University of Melbourne, May 1986 (published
in the Association Proceedings, November 1987).
from Commonwealth Copyright files, Australian Archives, Canberra.
courtesy Anne Pitkethly from her research for a monograph
relationship between the Caire photograph and the McCubbin
painting is discussed by Leigh Astbury, City Bushmen, op. cit.,
P. Millar in
Nicholas John Caire, op. cit., takes a different view; seeing Caire's
photographs related more to the style of painting in the 1870s than
the work of the
Heidelberg school. Caire sought dull days, mellow tones and rich
to the bright or dappled light favoured by the Heidelberg school
taste for fern motifs reached a peak in the 1860s, see Daniel
Thomas 'Fernmania in Australia', Australian
National Gallery Magazine
1982): and Tim
Bonyhady, Images in Opposition, op. cit., pp. 64-5.
Garran ed., Picturesque Atlas of Australasia (Sydney: Picturesque
Atlas Publishing Co,, 188688) 3 vols vol. 1, opp. p.161.
in the Daily Telegraph,
21August 1886, on the proposed publication of the Atlas carried
a disclaimer as to the use of photographs for illustrations in
artwork held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra,
that a number
of illustrations were actually drawn directly over photographs,
see especially A. H. Fullwood
(1863-1930) 'Harvesting, Codhill's Creek, near Ballarat'. NK
Lindt and N.J. Caire, Companion Guide to Healesville,
Blacks' Spur Narbethong, Marysville, Mt Donnabuang, Ben
and the Taggerty
commentary on these publications in Roger Butler, Australian
Prints: A Souvenir Book of Australian Prints in
(Canberra: Australian National Gallery, 1985), pp. 16-17.
Leigh Astbury, City Bushmen, op. cit. Painting and photography
relationships in nineteenth century Australian
art are also the
subject of a Doctoral Thesis
being undertaken by Bill Gaskins for Murdoch University,
Perth, Western Australia.
excellent selection of jokes and cartoons are reproduced in
Queensland Amateur Photographic Society, the Tasmanian
Photographic and Art Association, and the Victorian
in 1887; the Northern Tasmanian Camera Club
in Launceston in 1889, the Working Men's College Photographic
in Melbourne and the
Department Photographic Society all began
in 1891, The fourth (and final) New South Wales
Photographic Society, the New South Wales
Railway and Tramway Camera Club and the Western Australian
from Julie K. Brown, 'Versions of Reality:
The Production and
Function of Photographs in Colonial Queensland
1880-1900', Ph.D, History
Department, University of Queensland,
1984, p.52. The latter is a rich source of
data and analyses of the period applicable to other States.
relations of the period are dealt with by David
P. Millar, Charles Kerry's Federation Australia (Sydney:
Ell, 1981), p. 18. M.E.A. p. 88, and Julie K. Brown, 'Versions
of Reality', op. cit., pp.37-44.
Board, editor of the English magazine Sun Artists attended
the congress. His article 'Cinderella Photography
and its Relationship to Art', A.P.J.
(April 1896), p.86 reflects the art aspirations of the period.
'A New Pocket Camera', Bulletin, 30 May 1896, reprinted M.E.A.
Hall and Jenni Mather in Australian Women Photographers 1840-1960
(Melbourne: Greenhouse, 1986) trace women photographers
to the earliest
years of practice but significant numbers only appear in the 1880s.
and South Australian Photographic Societies seem to have had quite
high numbers by
1895, although the Victorian Amateur Photographic Association had only
three women members in 1898, and the New South Wales Photographic Society
women only as associates until challenged by a woman wishing to exhibit
a description of Mark Blows' enterprise see M.E.A., pp. 104,
243. See also Appendix p. 161 for Blows' 4ater work with
J. Marchant (1846-1910) was the first to manufacture dry plates,
see R. J. Noye, Early South
Australia: privately published, 1968).
of the company's views are held by the Mitchell Library, Sydney
and the National
Library of Australia, Canberra. Whether
Samuel Phillips and
Adam Stephan succeeded in creating a market for their work is
Hewitt from his Land, Labour and Gold (1855), reprint
London: Kilmore Lowden 1972 quoted in Kaye Harman,
to Australia by Visiting Writers 1836-1939 (Balgowlah,
New South Wales: Boobook, 1985), p.30.
A view promoted by William Moore's pioneer
study The Story of Australian Art: From the Earliest Known
Art of the Continent to the Art of Today (Sydney: Angus and Robertson,
1934, 2 vols).
Reproduced Tim Bonyhady, Images in Opposition,
op. cit., pl.25.
See Ann Galbally, 'Aestheticism in Australia'
in Anthony Bradley and Terry Smith eds. Australian Art and
Presented to Bernard Smith (Melbourne: Oxford University
Press, 1980), pp.124249.
See Roger Butler, Australian Prints, op. cit.
for developments in printmaking.
Statement in 'Prologue', to the
catalogue Society of Artists Spring Exhibition 1897 held
at Vickery's Buildings, Sydney.
See A.P.-R. (October 1898) and A.P.J. (August
1898). Kauffmarm is discussed further in ch.9. See n. 1 for
aesthetic climate in Adelaide at this time is discussed at
greater length in Gael Newton's article 'John
1864-1942: Art Photographer', Australasian
Antique Collector; 20, (1980),
The theory and practice of British Pictorialists
is well defined by John Taylor in his Pictorial
Photography in Britain
(London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978).
an account of Emerson (18561936) see Nancy Newhall, P. H.
Emerson (New York: Aperture, 1975).
No copy of his Landscape on the Norfolk
Broads, for example, appears to have reached Australia
Gallery acquired a copy in recent years.
of aims included in the Catalogue of the Sixth Annual Exhibition
'The Hand Camera in Photography',
The Australasian Critic (I November 1890): p.44.
reported on photography
time to time and
with some sympathy for the art photography
'Aims and Ends', Photographic Review of Reviews (November 1894):
was quoting from an unnamed photographic
an investigation of antipathy to Robinson by P. H. Emerson and
present-day photohistorians see John
Taylor, 'Henry Peach
Robinson and Victorian Theory'History
of Photography 3, no. 4, (October 1979):
growth of specialised scientific vocations within the field of
History is covered in M. E. Hoare,
'Science and Scientific
Associations in Eastern Australia,
1820-1890'. Ph.D. Australian National
1974, p.313 passim. Julie K. Brown's
of Reality', op. cit., also deals
with amateurs and the new professionalism
of the 1890s, especially chs. 3-4.
A. Hill Griffiths, 'A Letter from Australia', Photograms of
the Year 1901
(1901), p.30. Griffiths was editor
of the A.P.J.
account ofloynerand his role in developing Pictorial photography
in South Australia see jean Waterhouse
Alison Carroll, Real
Visions: The Life and Work of
Joyner South Australian Photographer
(Adelaide: Art Gallery of South
Australia, 1981). The
Art Gallery of South Australia,
Adelaide holds a large collection
works. Smaller but substantial
groups of Joyner photographs
are held by the Art Gallery of
New South Wales and the Australian
Jolly's paper 'Australian Photography: Pictorialism to
of a lecture c1982 Australian
files, stresses the role of
narrative traditions in the growth of Pictorialism.
See also Leigh Astbury, City
Bushmen, op. cit.,
T. Radford, 'Impressionist Photography', A.P.-R. (August,
information on Radford can be found in
Jack Cato The Story
of the Camera in Australia
House, 1955), p.175. However,
Cato states incorrectly
died in 1953. Radford,
who had a studio in Lismore in
upon hard times and died
shortly after a meeting
Cazneaux c.1920. See letter
no.7 March 1951, p.5 from
Cazneaux to Jack Cato,
ms held by Cazneaux family,
National Gallery, Canberra.
Australian Photographic Society Annual Exhibition
1902 (Adelaide: 1902),
cat. no. 76.
[sic] Long, 'An Artist's Summing Up of
Exhibited at the
NSW Photographic Society
entry on Lionel Lindsay in Gael Newton,
A Survey of Art Photographyfrorn
1898 to 1938 (Sydney:
Art Gallery of New
South Wales 1979),
p.12. Lionel's colour
work is referred
to in the Appendix.
A large archive
by and of the Lindsay
family is held by
processes than Lionel.
(December 1903), p.440.
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