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SHADES OF LIGHT online

Based on text from the original book: Shades of Light: Photography and Australia 1839-1988
Gael Newton, 1988 Australian National Gallery

CHAPTER 7   footnotes

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  1. Lake Tyers Mission Station Visitors' Book 1878-1909, held by the La Trobe Library, Melbourne. Painters had been describing their sketching tours in similar terms since the 1840s, see Tim Bonyhady, Images in Opposition: Australian Landscape Painting 1801-1890 (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1985), p.63.

  2. For a biographical account of Nicholas Caire see David P. Millar's exhibition catalogue, Nicholas John Caire Photographer 183 7-1918 (Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1980). 1 am also grateful to David Millar for access to his unpublished monograph on Caire.

  3. Copies of Kruger's portfolio are held by the La Trobe Library, Melbourne and the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, dated c.1882 and 1886 respectively. For accounts of Kruger see Jennie Boddington, Fred Kruger 1831-1888 (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 1983), and Paul Fox, Geelong on Exhibition: A Photographic Image (Geelong, Victoria: Geelong Art Gallery, 1987).

  4. For the aesthetic expression of this socio-economic development see Leigh Astbury, City Bushmen: The Heidelberg School and the Rural Mythology (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1985) and Paul Fox, 'The Influence of Romanticism on the Colonial Encounter with the Bush, 1870-1914', paper delivered at the Architectural Historians of Australia conference, University of Melbourne, May 1986 (published in the Association Proceedings, November 1987).

  5. Dated from Commonwealth Copyright files, Australian Archives, Canberra. Information courtesy Anne Pitkethly from her research for a monograph on Caire.

  6. The relationship between the Caire photograph and the McCubbin painting is discussed by Leigh Astbury, City Bushmen, op. cit., p.94. David P. Millar in Nicholas John Caire, op. cit., takes a different view; seeing Caire's photographs related more to the style of painting in the 1870s than the work of the Heidelberg school. Caire sought dull days, mellow tones and rich detail in contrast to the bright or dappled light favoured by the Heidelberg school Impressionists.

  7. A taste for fern motifs reached a peak in the 1860s, see Daniel Thomas 'Fernmania in Australia', Australian National Gallery Magazine (September 1982): and Tim Bonyhady, Images in Opposition, op. cit., pp. 64-5.

  8. Andrew Garran ed., Picturesque Atlas of Australasia (Sydney: Picturesque Atlas Publishing Co,, 188688) 3 vols vol. 1, opp. p.161. An article in the Daily Telegraph, 21August 1886, on the proposed publication of the Atlas carried a disclaimer as to the use of photographs for illustrations in its pages. However, artwork held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra, shows that a number of illustrations were actually drawn directly over photographs, see especially A. H. Fullwood (1863-1930) 'Harvesting, Codhill's Creek, near Ballarat'. NK 5768.

  9. J.W. Lindt and N.J. Caire, Companion Guide to Healesville, Blacks' Spur Narbethong, Marysville, Mt Donnabuang, Ben Cairn and the Taggerty (Melbourne: Atlas Press, 1904).

  10. See commentary on these publications in Roger Butler, Australian Prints: A Souvenir Book of Australian Prints in the Australian National Gallery (Canberra: Australian National Gallery, 1985), pp. 16-17.

  11. See Leigh Astbury, City Bushmen, op. cit. Painting and photography relationships in nineteenth century Australian art are also the subject of a Doctoral Thesis being undertaken by Bill Gaskins for Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia.

  12. An excellent selection of jokes and cartoons are reproduced in the M.E.A.

  13. The Queensland Amateur Photographic Society, the Tasmanian Photographic and Art Association, and the Victorian Amateur Photographic Association were formed in 1887; the Northern Tasmanian Camera Club in Launceston in 1889, the Working Men's College Photographic Club in Melbourne and the New South Wales Lands Department Photographic Society all began in 1891, The fourth (and final) New South Wales Photographic Society, the New South Wales Railway and Tramway Camera Club and the Western Australian Photographic Society all commenced in 1894. List taken from Julie K. Brown, 'Versions of Reality: The Production and Function of Photographs in Colonial Queensland 1880-1900', Ph.D, History Department, University of Queensland, 1984, p.52. The latter is a rich source of data and analyses of the period applicable to other States. See also M.E.A.- pp.44.

  14. Trade relations of the period are dealt with by David P. Millar, Charles Kerry's Federation Australia (Sydney: David Ell, 1981), p. 18. M.E.A. p. 88, and Julie K. Brown, 'Versions of Reality', op. cit., pp.37-44.

  15. Arthur Board, editor of the English magazine Sun Artists attended the congress. His article 'Cinderella Photography and its Relationship to Art', A.P.J. (April 1896), p.86 reflects the art aspirations of the period.

  16. See 'A New Pocket Camera', Bulletin, 30 May 1896, reprinted M.E.A. p.247.

  17. Barbara Hall and Jenni Mather in Australian Women Photographers 1840-1960 (Melbourne: Greenhouse, 1986) trace women photographers to the earliest years of practice but significant numbers only appear in the 1880s. The Tasmanian and South Australian Photographic Societies seem to have had quite high numbers by 1895, although the Victorian Amateur Photographic Association had only three women members in 1898, and the New South Wales Photographic Society admitted women only as associates until challenged by a woman wishing to exhibit in 1913.

  18. For a description of Mark Blows' enterprise see M.E.A., pp. 104, 243. See also Appendix p. 161 for Blows' 4ater work with colour processes.

  19. Phillip J. Marchant (1846-1910) was the first to manufacture dry plates, see R. J. Noye, Early South Australian Photography (Saddleworth, South Australia: privately published, 1968).

  20. Portfolios of the company's views are held by the Mitchell Library, Sydney and the National Library of Australia, Canberra. Whether Samuel Phillips and Adam Stephan succeeded in creating a market for their work is not clear.

  21. William Hewitt from his Land, Labour and Gold (1855), reprint London: Kilmore Lowden 1972 quoted in Kaye Harman, ed., Australia Brought to Book: Responses to Australia by Visiting Writers 1836-1939 (Balgowlah, New South Wales: Boobook, 1985), p.30.



  1. A view promoted by William Moore's pioneer study The Story of Australian Art: From the Earliest Known Art of the Continent to the Art of Today (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1934, 2 vols).

  2. Reproduced Tim Bonyhady, Images in Opposition, op. cit., pl.25.

  3. See Ann Galbally, 'Aestheticism in Australia' in Anthony Bradley and Terry Smith eds. Australian Art and Architecture: Essays Presented to Bernard Smith (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1980), pp.124249.

  4. See Roger Butler, Australian Prints, op. cit. for developments in printmaking.

  5. Statement in 'Prologue', to the catalogue Society of Artists Spring Exhibition 1897 held at Vickery's Buildings, Sydney.

  6. See A.P.-R. (October 1898) and A.P.J. (August 1898). Kauffmarm is discussed further in ch.9. See n. 1 for biographical sources.

  7. The aesthetic climate in Adelaide at this time is discussed at greater length in Gael Newton's article 'John Kauffmann 1864-1942: Art Photographer', Australasian Antique Collector; 20, (1980), pp. 114-20.

  8. The theory and practice of British Pictorialists is well defined by John Taylor in his Pictorial Photography in Britain 1900-1920 (London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978).

  9. For an account of Emerson (18561936) see Nancy Newhall, P. H. Emerson (New York: Aperture, 1975).

  10. No copy of his Landscape on the Norfolk Broads, for example, appears to have reached Australia until the Australian National Gallery acquired a copy in recent years.

  11. Statement of aims included in the Catalogue of the Sixth Annual Exhibition Photographic Salon (London: 1898).

  12. 'The Hand Camera in Photography', The Australasian Critic (I November 1890): p.44. This journal reported on photography from time to time and with some sympathy for the art photography movement.

  13. See 'Aims and Ends', Photographic Review of Reviews (November 1894): p.8. Robinson was quoting from an unnamed photographic paper.

  14. For an investigation of antipathy to Robinson by P. H. Emerson and even present-day photohistorians see John Taylor, 'Henry Peach Robinson and Victorian Theory'History of Photography 3, no. 4, (October 1979): pp.295-303.

  15. The growth of specialised scientific vocations within the field of Natural History is covered in M. E. Hoare, 'Science and Scientific Associations in Eastern Australia, 1820-1890'. Ph.D. Australian National University, 1974, p.313 passim. Julie K. Brown's 'Versions of Reality', op. cit., also deals with amateurs and the new professionalism of the 1890s, especially chs. 3-4.

  16. See A. Hill Griffiths, 'A Letter from Australia', Photograms of the Year 1901 (1901), p.30. Griffiths was editor of the A.P.J.

  17. Foran account ofloynerand his role in developing Pictorial photography in South Australia see jean Waterhouse and Alison Carroll, Real Visions: The Life and Work of F. A. Joyner South Australian Photographer 1863-1945 (Adelaide: Art Gallery of South Australia, 1981). The Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide holds a large collection of Joyner's works. Smaller but substantial groups of Joyner photographs are held by the Art Gallery of New South Wales and the Australian National Gallery, Canberra.

  18. Martyn Jolly's paper 'Australian Photography: Pictorialism to Photojournalism', ms. of a lecture c1982 Australian National Gallery files, stresses the role of narrative traditions in the growth of Pictorialism. See also Leigh Astbury, City Bushmen, op. cit., p.33.

  19. Fred T. Radford, 'Impressionist Photography', A.P.-R. (August, 1899): pp.9-10.

  20. Biographical information on Radford can be found in Jack Cato The Story of the Camera in Australia (Melbourne: Georgian House, 1955), p.175. However, Cato states incorrectly that Radford died in 1953. Radford, who had a studio in Lismore in 1920, evidently fell upon hard times and died shortly after a meeting with Harold Cazneaux c.1920. See letter no.7 March 1951, p.5 from Cazneaux to Jack Cato, ms held by Cazneaux family, photocopy Australian National Gallery, Canberra.

  21. South Australian Photographic Society Annual Exhibition 1902 (Adelaide: 1902), cat. no. 76.

  22. Sid [sic] Long, 'An Artist's Summing Up of the Pictures Exhibited at the NSW Photographic Society Exhibition', A.P.-R. (December 1903): pp.442-50.

  23. See entry on Lionel Lindsay in Gael Newton, Australian Pictorial Photography: A Survey of Art Photographyfrorn 1898 to 1938 (Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales 1979), p.12. Lionel's colour work is referred to in the Appendix. A large archive of photographs by and of the Lindsay family is held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra. Norman apparently experimented with fewer processes than Lionel.

  24. A.P.-R. (December 1903), p.440.

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