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Based on text from the original book: Shades of Light: Photography and Australia 1839-1988
Gael Newton, 1988 Australian National Gallery


Chapter 5    Footnotes


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  1. Studio advertisement cited by Chris Long in his Index to Photographers Working in Tasmania 1840-1940(ms. held by Long) entry on Clifford. By 1871 Charles Pickering in Sydney had 20,000 negatives for sale (see Sydney Morning Herald, 31 January 1871). Townsend Duryea lost 50,000 negatives in his studio fire in 1875. (See R.J. Noye, Early South Australian Photography (Saddleworth, South Australia: privately published, 1968).

  2. Held by the National Library of Australia, album no.717,

  3. Jocelyn does not appear to have visited Australia. Her work is to be the subject of a forthcoming article by Isobel Crombie in Photofile (Sydney).

  4. Held by the John Oxley Library, Brisbane, album APO 27. See Tim Bonyhady, ch. 2 'An Aboriginal Arcadia', Images in Opposition: Australian Landscape Painting 18011890 (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1986), for a discussion of these themes in Australian colonial landscape painting. George H. Verney (w. 1860s) aide-de-camp to the Governor in Brisbane, made photographs with witty captions and some elaborate posing in the late 1860s but did not add elaborate painted decoration. An album of his work (in poor condition) is held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra.

  5. Held by the La Trobe Collection, State Library of Victoria and measuring 137.2 by 118 centimetres. Chuck also sold smaller copies.

  6. Held by the Mortlock Library. The 'men of South Australia' were pioneers who had arrived in the colony between 1835 and 1841. Jones also made a mosaic of their wives.

  7. Held at the Adelaide Town Hall in the Mayor's office.

  8. K.S. Inglis, The Rehearsal: Australians at War in the Sudan 1885 (Sydney: Rigby, 1985), p. 144, notes that Boake made the group portrait soon after the return of the Contingent. Copies were sold by the hundreds and the work exhibited in the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886. A giant version on a canvas banner was recently rediscovered at the Australian War Memorial, and the existence of a copy photograph ofa slightly different version suggests the existence of another banner. Illustrated ch.6, p.62.

  9. Robert Holden's bibliography, Photography in Colonial Australia: The Mechanical Eye and the Illustrated Book (Sydney: Hordern House, in publication), lists some two hundred works in this genre.

  10. Published in the Tasmanian Herald, 1866. Meredith had used photographs as the basis for illustrations in her earlier book, Over the Straits: A Visit to Victoria (London: Chapman Hall, 1861). She evidently experimented with photography but as no prints survive, or were used by her in publications, this seems unlikely. See Vivienne Rae Ellis, Louisa Anne Meredith: A Tigress in Exile (Sandy Bay, Tasmania: Blubberhead Press, 1979), p,66.

  11. Information from New Norcia Mission. The Mission's large photographic Archive has been copied by the Battye Library. For images in the series, see Lois Tilbrook, NyungarTradition: Climpses of Aborigines of South-Western Australia 1829-1914 (Perth: University of Western Australia Press, 1983), pp.47-51.

  12. Reproduced inME.A., p.165.

  13. See Robert Holden Photography in Colonial Australia, op. cit,, for details of these productions.

  14. Held by the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. The Government commissioned four photographers to cover events.

  15. Reproduced in Jack Cato, The Story of the Camera in Australia (Melbourne: Georgian House, 1955), between pp.96 and 97.

  16. Reproduced in Jack Pollard, Pictorial History of Australian Cricket (Melbourne: J.M. Dent, A.B.C., 1983), p.38.

  17. This was one of the earliest photographs of a bushranger outside personal studio portraits. It is reproduced in Fred Lowry, A Pictorial History of Bushranging (Melbourne: Paul HamyIn, 1968), pp.66-7.

  18. See Robert Holden, Photography in Colonial Australia, op. cit., for an ac19
    count of the Kinder case and other examples.

  19. Held by the Mitchell Library, Sydney.

  20. Photohistorian Keast Burke regarded a photograph of the burnt-out Prince of Wales Theatre as one of the earliest 'press-pictures', and it appears in Jack Cato's Story of the Camera in Australia (Melbourne: Georgian House, 1955). However, topical events were being photographed especially from the mid1850s on, for sale, or for use for images in the illustrated papers.

  21. Album held by the Parliamentary Library of South Australia. The layout of a copy in a private collection suggests it was possibly a mock-up for a publication. One of these portraits is reproduced by David Moore and Rodney Hall Australia: Image of a Nation, (Sydney: Collins, 1985).

  22. Held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra, and reproduced in Patsy Adam Smith, Victorian and Edwardian Melbourne from Old Photographs (Melbourne: John Ferguson 1978), p.36.

  23. See M.E.A. references, and pp.52, 58.

  24. The Intercolonial Exhibition of 1866 was one of the earliest to have generated a portfolio of original photographs of the exhibits, taken by Ellis and Co. of Melbourne. Held by the Mitchell library, State Library of NSW, Sydney, 660 N. See also notes 31,39.

  25. Duryea Bros. advertisement, South Australian Register, 15 September 1855. Robert Hall had already introduced collodiotypes (see South Australian Register, 2 August 1854). Hall made several trips to England to learn of new developments.

  26. The original panorama is held by the Mortlock Library, State Library of South Australia, Adelaide. A copy of Duryea's charmingly informal album of the Prince of Wales' visit, titled Photographs of South Australia, Sydney and Melbourne is held in the Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, Sydney, D.126, no.6. These are the earliest commercial albums produced in South Australia.

  27. Unsourced reference, Jack Cato, The Story of the Camera in Australia, op.cit.p. 3 1.

  28. Held by the Latrobe Library, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne.

  29. Held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra. no. 58736, in 8 panels from photographs, c. 1836.

  30. See especially albums no. 217 and 219 held by the National Library of Australia, Canberra. Nettleton's reputation has suffered as a result of white spotting on images, caused it seems by the gilt lettering spread over the images during pressing onto lettered cards.

  31. The Mitchell Library holds the original and subsequent albums of Pickering's views for the London exhibition.

  32. The photography gallery at the Office was introduced in 1870 (following the establishment of the Photolithographic branch in 1868) and accommodated in extensions to the office premises in Spring Street, Sydney. Photographic work was in full operation by 1879,

  33. Freeman has been overlooked in photohistories. He inherited the role of Adelaide's leading studio photographer in the 1870s and was an energetic showman and experimenter with all new processes and trends. A file of his press clippings is held by the Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide.

  34. 'A Wanderer among the Photographic Views at the Intercolonial Exhibition', Australia Monthly (1866-67): pp.360-5. 'Sol' also wrote articles for the spiritualist magazine, Harbinger of Light.

  35. For Merlin's other names and details of his prior career as a showman and puppeteer, see Richard Bradshaw, 'The Merlin of the South', Australasian Drama Studies (October 1985): pp.93-130.\

  36. For accounts of Merlin and Bayliss, see Keast Burke, Gold and Silver, Photographs of Australian Goldfields, From the Holtermann Collection (Sydney: Heinemann, 1973).

  37. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 September 1870, quoted M.E.A. p.62.

  38. See Harry Gordon, Famous Australian Newspictures (Melbourne: Macmillan, 1975), p.5.

  39. Lindt was a long- established photographer by 1880. His career is detailed in ch. 6. He was not on the first night train, as reported in the Australasian Sketcher, Queensland edn, vol.6, no. 10 1, 14 August 1880, but arrived with the second press contingent - which gave full coverage to the Kelly Gang. Coverage of the Kelly Gang in the Sketcher began as early as 23 November 1878 and 27 December 1879.

  40. The image was apparently first published in Julian Ashton's autobiography, Now Came Still Evening On (Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1941). Ashton claims the print was sent to him by Lindt, c.1910, butthe damage evident on the negative and the poor retouching is not consistent with Lindt's perfectionism. For a discussion of the photographic and graphic depiction of the Kelly gang's last stand, see Nigel Lendon, 'Ashton, Roberts and Bayliss: Some Relationships between Illustration, Painting and Photography in the late Nineteenth Century', in Terry Smith and Anthony Bradley, eds. Australian Art and Architecture: Essays Presented to Bernard Smith (Melbourne: Oxford University Press), pp.74-6.

  41. Lindt's assistant Hermann Kruth recalled the taking of the Kelly Gang photographs as a wet plate. See M.E.A., p.76 and the A.P.-R. September, 1947.

  42. See A Century ofjournalism: Sydney Morning Herald and its RecordofAustralian Life 1831-1931. (Sydney: John Fairfax and Sons, 1931), pp.678-9.

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