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Sun Pictures by the Calotype Process. By Douglas T. Kilburn.
Esq. Read 4th December, 1853', Papers and Proceedings of the
Royal Society of Van Diemen's Land, vol. 2, part 3 (January 1853),
Morning Herald, 14 September 1855.
Sydney Morning Herald, 26 September
Sydney Morning Herald, 10 May 1855.
ch.2, n.5. An article in the Sydney Morning Herald
of 7 February 1856 refers to
the arrival of photography on the art
A few photographs dated c.1854 have
been published, but the author has not been able to sight
these to confirm dates (e.g.
a view of Collins Street in Patsy
Smith, Victorian and Edwardian Old Melbourne (Melbourne:
of Melbourne (1855) by MacGlashan, who worked with
pioneer Scottish photographer
D.O. Hill (1802-1870) in the 1860s, are held by
and an albumen print of
Melbourne is held by the George
Museum of Photography, Rochester, New
Haviland reported on Australia
in a letter to the Photographic Society journal
(21 July 1857), p.8. Frank
visited Australia in 1857
and 1859, delivering a paper
to the Philosophical
Society of New South Wales,
published in the Sydney Magazine of Science and
Art, vol. 1. (1858):
referred to his view of Bridge
Street taken on 24 May 1858. James Freeman's paper
p. 139, refers to Haes'
use of Dr Hill Norris' 'dry plates'. Haes
also reported on the development
of photography in Australia. See his article in
Journal of the Photographic
(22 March 1858): p.179.
He noted there were about thirty
fewer in Melbourne.
A portrait of a Miss Abbott is
held at 'Narryna', Van Diemen's Land Folk
Museum, Hobart, and two portraits
in Eve Buscombe ' Artists
in Early Australia and their Portraits (Sydney:
1979), p. 371.
Abbott album at the Crowther Library,
State Library of Tasmania, Hobart includes a small version,
Diemen's Land Folk Museum, Hobart, holds a copy.
attributed to George W. Perry
is held in a private collection and by the Royal Historical
Melbourne. See Harold Paynting,
Victoria Illustrated (Melbourne: James Flood Charity
1984), p. 178.
Town Courier, 16
July 1856, The camera took plates 40.5 by 5.8 centimetres.
of Frith's career are given
in Chris Long, Tasmania, the First Photographs
held by the author).
Only two sections of the
6-part mammoth plate panorama
(covering about 200 degrees) of 1858 from
St David's survive
prints - one in the
Tasmanian Club, Hobart, the other in the
and Art Gallery. Other versions
Sydney Morning Herald,
26 March 1858.
Morning Herald, 4 August 1858.
Sydney Morning Herald,
1 May 1858.
Held by the Museum of
Victoria, Melbourne. Reviewed Sydney Morning
18 July 1859.
built at the
top of his house in Liverpool Street,
(see Rae's lecture
to the School of Arts, Sydney
Morning Herald, 14 September 1855).
Rae was a poor
draughtsman, and the few panoramas
house, 'Hilton', reveal that even
the use of the
obscura could not improve
his lack of skill (held by the Mitchell
Sydney, DG SVIA
Copies of both
albums are held by the Australian
Canberra, the Mitchell
Library, State Library
of NSW, Sydney, and the National
of Australia, Canberra.
held by the Australian National
See M.E.A., p.28 for a description
of Hetzer's activities. Frank
Haes followed him with
series of Australian
Botanical Studies, published in
London in 1861 by his company
and Haes. See British Journal
of Photography (15 July
Morning Herald, 27 September 1858.
also produced pastel portraits with an extremely 'photographic'
were possibly made by drawing over some form of over-enlarged
photographs. Examples are held by Tim McCormick Rare
Books and Prints, Sydney, of Mr and Mrs Hay, c.1858. Dalton's
of portraits of the 1st Legislative Assembly of 1859
is held by the New South Wales Parliament and also contains
copies are held by the John Oxley Library, State Library of
Queensland, Brisbane, and a third by the La Trobe
Library, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne. See Dianne
Carew, Sun Pictures of Victoria: The Fauchery-Daintree
Collection 1858 (Melbourne: Currey ONeil Ross on behalf of
Council of Victoria, 1983), which includes biographies
of both men.
Nancy Newhall, P.H. Emerson: The Fight for Photography as a
Fine Art (New York: Aperture, 1975).
A.R. Chisholm's English translation, Letters From a Miner in
Georgian House, 1965).
the advertisement and catalogue information, see Dianne Reilly
and Jennifer Carew, Sun Pictures
cit., p. 16.
criticism is discussed in Tim Bonyhady, Images in Opposition:
Australian Landscape Painting
(Melbourne: Oxford University
Press, 1985), p.14, and Bernard Smith, Documents
on Art and Taste in Australia: 7he Colonial Period 1770-1941
University Press, 1975), p. 167.
Tim Bonyhady, Images in Opposition op. cit., pp 87-106.
Jack Cato in his The Story of the Camera in Australia (Melbourne:
Georgian House, 1955), pp. 14-16.
discovered the albums at Camden Park. They are now held
by the Mitchell Library and are being recatalogued by Alan
views of Ngauranga Gorge, 1850, are held by the Alexander Turnbull
Library, National Library of New Zealand, in the J.
C. Crawford album 111. Keast Burke published an article
on Matthew Fortescue Moresby in the A.PR (October 1956), pp.588-97,
of his programme of research into Australian photohistory.
John Rylands Library of Manchester holds an album, in poor
condition, of Jevons' Australian photographs. His work
in the Camden Park albums and a stereograph is reproduced
in M. E.A., pp.32-3. Iris Burke wrote an early appreciation
of Jevons as'Australia's First Pictorialist', in theA.P.-R,
pp.6-23. (However, Jevons' work was no better than
Jevons' socioeconomic studies began in Australia
with his 'Social Survey of Australian Cities' article, excerpts
published in Warren Wickman and Barry Groom, Sydney
in the 1850s: The Lost
Collections (Sydney: The Macleay Museum, University
of Sydney, 1982), pp. 10-11. The activities of the Sydney
and a selection of their photographs are included
in this account. Jevons did not pursue photography as a tool
as Henry Mayhew did for his London Labour and London
Warren Wideman and Barry Groom Sydney in the 1850s.., op.
cit., pp. 16-17. Initials on a print
Rylands University indicate that the photographer
was Robert Hunt. A collection
of Hunt's photographs is held by the Macleay Museum,
University of Sydney.
Held by Macleay Museum, University of Sydney, Sydney.
is possible that Smith, a Scottish graduate in medicine
from Edinburgh University,
may have received instruction
in photography from Dr Andrew Fyfe, who taught
chemistry at King's
Several stereoscopic ambrotypes, attributed
to Smith, of the University of Sydney in construction
(c. 1855) are held in a private collection.
Smith's stereoscopic work is described in M.E.A., p.34.
His glass plates
rediscovered at Sydney University by David
Macmillan, who wrote an account
of Smith for the A.P. -R. of December 1956,
pp.720-33. The most recent and most important study of
Snowden's paper, 'The Strayfaring Professor:
John Smith, Photography and "Learned Leisure"',
delivered to the Scientific Sydney workshop, Royal Society
and Royal Australian Historical
Society, History House, Sydney, 12 October
1985 (ms. held by the author).
Held 8 December 1858 and 12 December 1859 and reported in the
Sydney Magazine of Science and Art, vol.1 (1858): p.253, and
vol.2 (1859): p.131.
advertisement for the Swan River Mechanics' Institute photographic
soir6e of 15 September appears in the
Perth Gazette, 10 September 1858. Pownall was
described as the introducer of 'the whole of the apparatus and
chemicals together with a selection of very beautiful specimens
by the family in Western Australia; another album is held by
the Battye Library. Stone's work is
reproduced in David
Moore and Rodney Hall, Australia:
Image of a Nation, 1850-1950 (Sydney: William Collins, 1983),
owned a copy of the English Art-journal from vol.12, 1850,
containing articles on photography. See also Isobel Crombie,
'Louisa Elizabeth How,
Pioneer Photographer', Australian Business Collector (1984),
Barbara Hall and Jenni Mather, Australian Women Photographers
1840-1960 (Melbourne: Greenhouse, 1986). Julie Brown's 'Versions
of Reality: The
Production and Function of Photographs in Colonial Queensland
1880-1900', Ph.D. thesis,
Queensland University, 1984 (Fryer Library), p.36, also contains
useful data on the later increase in the number of women
in the photo
The Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts, State
Library of Tasmania, Hobart holds the largest archive of Allport's
Held by the Allport Library and Museum of Fine
Arts, Hobart. Amateur work was at its peak in England from the
late 1850s to the early 1860s, while the processes were exotic
and restricted to gentlemen. For an account of the English scene,
see Carolyn Bloore and Grace Seiberling, A Vision Exchanged: Amateurs
and Photography in MidVictorian England (London: Victoria and Albert
Albums held by the Allport Library and Museum
of Fine Arts, Hobart.
Album of early Australian Photographs, National
Library of Australia, no. 366. Possibly Victorian or South Australian
from the'Brighton' wool bale markings shown in photographs of the
Illustrated London News, 21 March 1857, p.266.
It is equally possible that the photographs were by Robert Hall
or travelling professionals such as the Duryeas who made extensive
regional tours after 1855, offering both daguerreotype and collodion
portraits. South Australian photohistorian Bob Noye knows of no
amateurs there before Dr M.H.S. Blood (c.1808-1883) mayor of Kapunda,
took photographs in the 1870s. For a discussion of South Australian
photography of this period, see R.J. Noye, Early South Australian
Photography (Saddleworth, South Australia: privately published,
1968) and'Clare and the Camera'in Clare a History (Adelaide: Investigator
Press, 1974), pp. 20914. 1 am grateful to Bob Noye for information
from his data base on South Australian photography to 1900. See
also Alan Sierp, Colonial Life in South Australian Photography
(Melbourne: John Ferguson, 1977).
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