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The original essay by Leslie J Beer in the 1919 publication


It is now fifteen years since the special Summer number " Art in Photography," issued by the" Studio," claimed that pictorial photography was so near the border line which divides Art from mere craftsmanship; that it was difficult to assign to it an exact position.

However, at the present time it is definitely claimed that picture-making with the camera is " Art."

On the Continent, and in London, exhibitions of pictorial photography are recognised in the Art world as being worthy of sincere attention; the pictures are sought by connoisseurs who pay prices for them which compare favourably with those received by Painters.

The Photographic Salon of London, for instance, has successfully held its annual exhibition since 1892, and who, amongst those interested in Art movements, will deny that the pictures shown there are works of Art?

Because of the wide popularity of photography as a hobby, pictures made by the camera are, to the less observant, just good photographs. Clear, sharp-cut definition to them is the beginning and ending of good photography. The sincere camera worker, however, is far removed from the happy band of "snap-shotters."

To produce a picture by means of photography, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the results to be achieved; and, as with the painter, this understanding is the outcome of many years of serious and patient study of Art and its Principles.

It is the temperament, the artistic instinct, and gift of perception that enables the individual to express himself pictorially. Irrespective of the medium employed, be it the brush or the camera, no picture can be produced without the foundation of this inherent artistic temperament.

Thus, it is reasonable to claim that the production of a picture conforming to the principles of Art, together with individualism, sentiment of poetry, and atmosphere, is a work of Art, even though photography be the medium employed.

The public, writers on Art, and painters have all been, and some still are, worshippers of the fetich; that whatever is made by hand must necessarily be Art, forgetting the while that the few authentic things in Art, are the product of the same fine intelligence and delicate perception, that may choose the camera as its medium of communicating to the world what it sees and feels; that it is a matter of brains, not brushes, and that where the Artist is, Art will be.

In Australia there has sprung up a vigorous and distinctly Australian school of pictorial photography; work by local men being regularly accepted, hung, and favourably commented upon at the leading exhibitions in London; notably at the "Salon."

To the Artist, whose work is the subject of this book, is the credit due for pioneering pictorial photography in Australia, and few will dispute the fact, that it was Mr. Kauffmann who aroused their early inspirations and awakened, in them, a desire to intelligently express themselves pictorially. It is, therefore, a fitting sequence that this book, " The Art of J. Kauffmann," should be the first publication, devoted to artistic photography, published in Australia.

It was as far back as the year 1897 that Mr. Kauffmann's work was first recognised, by the Australian press, as being remarkable for its artistic conception.

That his pictures 'were the finest specimens of photographic work ever seen in Australia, was the comment made by "The Australian Star " (now the "Sydney Sun").

From that time Mr. Kauffmann's work has always created the most favourable impression on the minds of Artists and Connoisseurs. It should be borne in mind that, at this time (1897), the Art of the Camera did not have the sympathetic following it has to-day. It is reasonable to say, therefore, that camera pictures had to be of the most outstanding merit to command the attention of the art critics who, always ready to consider anything perpetrated with a crayon or stick of charcoal, above all with a brush and colour, were as yet uncertain as to the true status of pictorial photography.

In the year 1900, the artistic possibilities of photography were being firmly established in England by the work of such men as Horsley-Hinton, Charles Job, Walter Bennington, Alexander Keigbley, F. J. Mortimer, and others.

Pictures by these artists were stamped with such marked individuality that their authorship was readily recognisable, as are pictures by the leading painters.
At this time "The Amateur Photographer," a leading English journal devoted to the interests of photography, then edited by the late Horsley-Hinton, was doing much to encourage pictorial work in Great Britain. To foster an imperial interest in the movement a competition was inaugurated, to which work was invited from all the British Colonies, and all foreign residents (other than in the continent of Europe).

From the inception of these international competitions, Kauffmann was one of the principal contributors from Australia. For his first entry in these competitions the silver medal was awarded to his "A Winter's Day." This picture was most favorably commented on in the paper's critical review of the work received for competition.

Again, in 1906, Mr. Kauffmann was awarded the "Amateur Photographers' Silver Plaque" for a figure study "The Ring." Of this, the critic said it was a distinctly satisfactory performance, restrained in effect, and decorative in form. Other successes gained by Kauffmann, in London, were in connection with the competition inaugurated by the above-mentioned paper, and entitled "Holidays with the Camera."

Three sets of his pictures were awarded the medal of honour. In the comments on this work it was said: "We welcome Mr. Kauffmann as the winner of the silver medal. His original prints, both in themselves and in the manner in which they are mounted, indicate care and good judgment, whilst the quality of the printing is above reproach. This gentleman is resident in Adelaide, and probably, therefore, has not all the advantages, that many in the home country possess, of close communion with advanced workers."

It is also interesting to note what Antony Guest said of the work, particularly, as Mr. Guest is acknowledged to be the leading critic and writer, on artistic photography, in England: "A cordial welcome will certainly be extended by English photographers to the singularly individual and original work that has been executed by a votary of the craft, who lives as far away from the centre of modern movements as Adelaide. Mr. Kauffmann's prints show an intense feeling for nature and a good deal of artistic judgment. "A Winter Evening" is a really impressive and poetical snow scene.

The treatment of the snow is very tender, and the sky is luminous and picturesque. "After Sun rise" is another work of a type far removed from the common-place; the sky delicately treated, and the sands and water in­dicated with a degree of reserve that gives effect to the gleam­ing light which, of course, forms the motive of the picture."

"Winter Mist" is also an engaging and original work.

Later in the same year one of Kauffmann's pictures, "A Field of Snow," won the silver medal in another of the "Special Foreign and Colonial" competitions. Of this picture, the late Mr. Horsley-Hinton wrote as follows: "J. Kauffmann, of Adelaide, is awarded the silver medal. The rendering of the snow, in his 'A Field of Snow / should be particularly instructive, being one of the, not too common, instances of the photographer perceiving that it is not the great mass, but rather it is the little points and irregular details of the snow that alone are (in an afternoon light) white; the flat, unbroken surface reflecting the grey of the sky and consisting of innumerable tiny points of shadow, lowering the tone of the whole.

" In composition and general management, this print deserves very high praise."

The foregoing comments by such eminent Art critics as Mr. Antony Guest and Mr. Horsley-Hinton are printed in full mainly to show how Mr. Kauffmann's work was received in London, at a time when pictorial photography had reached a high artistic level.

The achievements already chronicled were attained by Kauffmann many years ago, and as a natural result of constant and serious study, his artistic mind has developed considerably. He has, in fact, risen to an assured place amongst the foremost artist-photographers of the world. The pictures herein reproduced will convey the truth of this assertion.

From the following notes on Mr. Kauffmann's career it will be seen that practically all his life has been devoted to the study of Art through the medium of the Camera.

Few painters in Australia to-day, and fewer photographers, have had such a thorough training and so much experience in the Art centres of the world, as he.
Kauffmann was born near Adelaide, South Australia, where he resided until he reached manhood's estate.

At the age of seventeen he was articled for three years to the well-known architect, Mr. John H. Grainger, and in his spare time attending the Art classes conducted by the late Harry P. Gill.

At the expiration of this apprenticeship he left Australia for London, where he entered the office of Messrs. Macmurdo and Home, a well-known firm of English architects.

Mr. Macmurdo, it may be stated, in addition to being an architect, was an Art Connoisseur and critic of note, and had considerable influence in all modern art movements of the day. Of the many artists who profited by his guidance and advice may be mentioned the name of the painter, Frank Brangwyn.

Mr. Shaw-Sparrow, in his book on this artist, particularly mentions the influence of Mr. Macmurdo on the young painter's early studies. It was Mr. Macmurdo, also, who founded and edited the " Hobby Horse," a connoisseurs' art magazine of distinction.

It was in this artistic environment that young Kauffmann spent his first year in London. What time he could spare from his architectural work was devoted to the study of Art and Photography. As yet, he had not realised the potentialities of the camera for picture making.

Never having a great enthusiasm for architecture, Kauffmann, at the end of his first year in London, finally abandoned it as a profession.

He then entered on a course of studies in chemistry, and for the next two years attended the laboratories of an analytical chemist. Meanwhile he availed himself of week-ends and holidays to the study of the beauties of rural England, sketch book and camera always at hand.

It was at this time, about the year 1889, that considerable discussion was aroused, in artistic circles in London, by the very fine pictorial photographs that were being shown at the Royal Photographic Society's exhibition.

So successful were the pictures by such men m the late H. P. Robinson, Horsley-Hinton, and others, that the artistic possibilities of the camera were at once admitted.

Kauffmann visited this exhibition several times, each time being impressed with the work seen.

He was now realising that, through the medium of photography he could attain what was always his great desire, namely to egress, pictorially, the beauty and poetry that nature had already revealed to him.

Like many other exponents of the camera art, Kauffmann lacked manipulative skill with brush and pallette, although possessed of a fine perception and a sensitive appreciation of beauty.

Photography was the true metier for him, and the camera was, in future, to be his vehicle of artistic expression.

It will be noted, therefore, that Kauffmann, like so many other artist photographers, mainly owes his first real artistic photographic aspirations to the two artists, H. P. Robinson and Horsley-Hinton, who are rightly known, in the history of Artistic Photography, as the fathers of the "New Art" in England.

Although, as will be seen from the subsequent notes, Kauffmann continued his studies in chemistry and other photomechanical processes, it was at this time he decided that artistic photography would, at a later date, be his chosen profession.

After two years in a London laboratory, Kauffmann went to Switzerland and continued his studies in chemistry, for three years more, at the University of Zurich.
This long stay in Switzerland also offered him unique opportunities for his photographic pursuits.

While photographing the beautiful and kaleidoscopic snow-capped mountains of the Alps, he learnt the camera’s limitations for the true rendering of such nature’s beauties.

Photography is handicapped in this achievement, from the fact that colour plays no part in the realization of the natural beauties that would aspire the painter.
Kauffmann learnt that, to successfully portray nature in monochrome, the correct rendering of the subtleties of tone was of paramount importance. He also observed that “subject,” or “theme”| required more careful selection than what is usually bestowed on it by the painter.

At the termination of his three years' course of chemistry at Zurich, Kauffmann finally decided to devote all his time to the artistic side of photography.
The time previously given to the study of chemistry, and his constant practice of photography as an amateur, had overcome most of the technical details of his newly-chosen profession.

But technique is not art; it is merely an accessory to it, the accomplishing of an understanding of art principles was the big task Kauffmann then set himself.
His first step in his new career was to accept the position of assistant at the portrait studio of a fashionable photographer in Vienna but, at the end of six months, he again returned to Zurich for a short stay.

From Switzerland he went to Groenbach, in Bavaria, and entered a school of photographic reproduction, and for a year studied zinc etching and the collotype process.

Prosaic as these subjects may appear in the life of an Art student, they were, nevertheless, no hindrance to his artistic career; but were, in fact, useful steps in furthering his understanding of another phase of the graphic arts.

From Bavaria Kauffmann went to Munich, for a short visit, and then again visited Vienna.

He now entered on what must be considered the most important period of his many years of study abroad.

On his arrival at the Austrian capital he entered, as a student, the Imperial Technical and Research Institution for Photography and Reproduction Processes, at that time presided over by Professor Eder, an acknowledged authority throughout the world on all photographic processes.

This school was, by the way, one of many similar institutions founded and maintained by the Government which, through teaching and providing adequate facilities for research work, were great factors in the progress of the photographic and other arts in Austria.

During this period of study Kauffmann had opportunities of visiting the leading picture galleries, and the exhibitions of the Vienna Camera Club, and it is to the latter that the credit is due for an important advance in his artistic education.

It has already been shown in these notes how the impressionable young mind of Kauffmann was influenced, in London, some years previously, by the work executed by the leading English artist photographers, but it was not until now that he fully realised the important position of the new art in the best artistic circles on the Continent.

It was the wonderful work shown at the Vienna Camera Club's exhibitions, at this time, that is said to have definitely placed the art of the camera in the position it now holds.

These Viennese exhibitions were an innovation. The leading exponents of the art in other countries were invited to send their work, and the result was a remarkable demonstration of what the youngest amongst the graphic arts had accomplished.

Hitherto painters and critics in England, and on the Continent, had adopted an attitude of indifference, and rarely condescended to take the work of the camera men seriously.

The pictures shown in Vienna, at this time, completely altered the views of painter and critic alike. They agreed that these pictures were such that no exhibition of pictorial art need be ashamed.

It may be interesting to recall here the fact that the late Horsley-Hinton was an exhibitor and also a visitor at one of the Vienna Camera Club’s exhibitions, and he wrote of it, at a much later date as follows:  “From this time onwards is, then, the period during which Pictorial Photography has developed, shaking off the swaddling cloths of technical traditions, as the growth and desire for the independence demanded greater freedom.”

The foregoing lengthy reference to the position and the important evolution of Art Photography on the Continent, in particularly in Vienna, is given mainly to show what the environment was, in which the mind of Kauffmann was being developed man artistic sense and it is possible too, that although not conscious of it, at the time, the influence of this important year in Vienna may have inspired him with an established ambition to emulate, as far as possible, the work he had seen there.

After this very profitable year in Vienna, Kauffmann again visited Munich, there to renew the acquaintance of the many artistic friends, with whom he had spent some enjoyable outings in quest of pictorial subjects.

After leaving Munich he visited Paris, and there spent a very enjoyable and well-earned holiday, prior to returning to Australia.

In the foregoing impersonal notes on Mr. Kauffmann's career, during his ten years travel and study in England and on the Continent, the writer has endeavoured to show how serious were his studies in the photographic art.

In all these studies, too, there was such a singleness of purpose and persistent effort that it is small wonder he has risen to such a high position in the world of Artistic Photography.

It has previously been stated in these notes that Mr. Kauffmann was one of the earliest pioneers of Art Photography in Australia, and it will now be endeavoured to substantiate that assertion by the following references to his work: Kauffmann returned to Australia in the year 1897, and those interested in the development of pictorial photography will remember that the work of the camera, in those days, was hardly recognised as an artistic achievement. It is true there were a few earnest amateurs in each State who were doing good, honest work, but compared with what was then being accomplished in the older cities abroad, it was not of a high standard, pictorially.

At the present time, however, it is generally admitted that pictorial photography, assisted by the tremendous advance in technique, has developed almost to a state of perfection. A level has been reached where the average is very high and, of the few exponents of the art, whose work stands out, the name of J. Kauffmann must be assigned to a high place on the list.

In these days few big towns of importance are without a camera club, which fosters good work by arranging demonstrations in photographic technique, and tries to attract a larger public by means of exhibitions. Some of the work produced by members of the leading societies is of a distinctly high order, and many of their pictures have won recognition at the London Salon and other important exhibitions.

This marked advancement made, and the state of efficiency attained, is mainly due to the liberal-minded artistic workers of a decade or two ago, who willingly imparted to others the knowledge they themselves had gained.

One of the earliest of these artists was Mr. Kauffmann who, on returning to his native city of Adelaide, equipped with a knowledge of the new art, that few of his contemporaries could claim, immediately interested himself in the South Australia Photographic Society.

The effect of his influence was soon apparent for, during the year following his return, this Society held a most successful exhibition. The Adelaide press, while reviewing the show, spoke in the highest terms of praise about the artistic quality of the work exhibited by some of the members.

Prior to the South. Australia Society's exhibition, Kauffmann had shown a collection of his pictures made from negatives obtained on the Continent, and particularly of Swiss landscape. This exhibition was a revelation to the art-loving public of Adelaide, and the opinion of the "Register's" critic will show the impression they made; he wrote as follows: "In the course of his artistic studies abroad Mr. Kauffmann made a number of beautiful photographs. These reproductions are exquisite in the delicacy and the gradation of the tones, giving a depth of softness singularly attractive to the eye of the lover of artistic effect There are views of Lake Maggiore, Moravian village scenes, and a most delightful sketch of an old village near Zurich. The majority of the pictures present alluring landscape, water, and cloud interpretations of nature, and are well worth inspection."

For some years Kauffmann remained in Adelaide continuing his good work amongst the members of the South Australia Society, and all the time developing his own art. The beautiful and majestic gum trees of the South Australian bush were a constant source of inspiration and study, and were photographed by him in every subtle phase which nature endows them.

In the year 1910 Kauffmann essayed on a venture that had not before been attempted; he held a "one-man's show" in Melbourne, under the auspices of the Victorian Photographic Association. This was indeed an innovation; there had hitherto been, of course, some very fine exhibitions of artistic photographs executed by several exponents of the craft, but never before had the work of one man constituted the whole of an exhibition.

The painter knows what a severe test of his talent a "one-man's" show is, unaided by the work of other artists, each with an individuality of his own. But how much more severe must this test be when the medium employed is the photographic process reproducing nature only in monochrome. Yet it was generally admitted, by both public and press, that this exhibition was a pronounced success.

The next occasion on which a collection of his work was exhibited was in 1914. This second "one-man show" was seen in Melbourne and Sydney.
What reputation Mr. Kauffmann had already achieved was, through this, greatly advanced. No enthusiastic pictorial photographer in Victoria or New South Wales will have forgotten the favourable impression this exhibition of his work created. It was a complete exposition of pictorial photography. Much of the work shown was masterly, and all was strong and interesting.

A striking lesson in the importance of "specialising" was gained by a study of this collection of pure landscape.

It is a fact that many of our leading workers are never seen at their real value through a scattering of their forces. Kauffmann has chosen the interpretation of landscape as his profession, and on this one subject has he concentrated.

Much could be written here about this exhibition of Kauffmann's work, but, lest the writer be accused of a lavishness of praise, it may, perhaps, be preferable to quote from the press criticisms, which appeared in the leading papers in Melbourne and Sydney.

The following is part of the criticism of the show which appeared in the Melbourne |Age,"6th March, 1914: "It is only within comparatively recent times that photography has been raised out of the sphere of the mechanical, into the realm of the artistic. Splendid work can undoubtedly be accomplished on the system of 'you press the button and we do the rest/ but the best of which modern photography is capable requires an artist in the performance. To be an artist with the camera is almost as rare an accomplishment as to be an artist with the brush. One realises this on seeing the collection of pictorial photographs which are now on public view at the Photographic Association's rooms in Swanston Street. The exhibit, which comprises 80 prints, is the work of Mr. J. Kauffmann, who, both in his choice of subject and his method of execution, reveals himself a true artist-photographer."

The "Leader's" critic said that "by the accompaniment of artistic appreciation, intelligence and skill, photography could be raised to the level of high art." It also said that “one of the most skilful exponents of artistic photography was Mr. J. Kauffmann."

The Sydney "Daily Telegraph," in a half column review of the same exhibition, said: "A one-man show, the work of Mr. J. Kauffmann, erstwhile of Adelaide, but for some years resident in Melbourne. Mr Kauffmann undoubtedly possesses a keen eye for artistic effects. His composition is of a high order, and his treatment of the tones excellent." The final paragraph said, “Altogether, the pictures shown by Mr- Kauffmann have aroused much interest, and also proved instructive."

Another Sydney paper said: "The one-man show of Mr. Kauffmann s work will dispel the thoughts of the separatists who hold that artistic photography is not an art. Mr. Kauffmann is a photographer of high artistic ability, and has sacrificed much to further the aims of artistic photography. He is one of the pioneers of the art in Australia."

The foregoing remarks by the leading art critics of the press are important, as they show their present attitude towards the serious work of the camera, while a few years previously it was regarded by them as only fit for the making of records of fact.

Reference has already been made to certain successes attained by Mr. Kauffmann in London, and, in order to further show that his reputation is not parochial, his contributions to important English exhibitions will now be referred to.

As with the painter, so it is with the artist photographer, who, having gained some local successes, aspires to bigger things in the older world, where recognition is of more artistic value.

The painter aims at the Royal Academy in London, or the Salon of Paris, whereas the photographer seeks admission at the London Salon or the exhibition of the Royal Photographic Society. Both these exhibitions attract work from all parts of the world. To have work accepted and hung at either of these exhibitions is an honour of distinction, and of those Australians whose work has gained this distinction, Kauffmann was one of the first.

Since the year 1903, although not regularly, his pictures have been accepted for exhibition.

From the collection of pictures submitted for the London exhibitions a selection is made of the best for inclusion in "Photograms of the Year," an annual review of the world's pictorial photographic work. Kauffmann's work has, on several occasions, been reproduced in this important annual.

His first picture appeared in "Photograms" in the year 1903; it was entitled "Winter's Sunset," and, in the critical review of the work reproduced, it was favourably commented on.

In "Photograms of the Year," 1906, Kauffmann's contribution to the illustrations was “Winter Mist," selected from The Royal Photographic Society's Exhibition. It was one of the finest landscapes with figures in the collection, notwithstanding the excellence of the work by the leading English and Continental pictorialists.
The critic's comments on this picture were as follows: "ln the woodland scene, ‘Winter Mist,' J. Kauffmann, treats an old theme under a new disguise. The receding depths of the background receive adequate expression, the hazy lights being well rendered; but, as in all mist exercises, there is a sharp note, and the white group in the foreground provides it."

Of the three pictures accepted and hung at the 1907 exhibition of the Royal Photographic Society his "Brow of the Hill" appeared in "Photograms."

Mr. Snowden Ward, in his critical review of the year's work, said of "The Brow of the Hill": “An Australian who has made great progress during the twelve months is J. Kauffmann, whose landscape shows new insight and new powers of expression. It shows original observation and certainty in handling. In feeling it comes nearer to the massiveness of a certain Continental School of Landscapists."

Mr. Kauffmann did not send to London again until the year 1914, when three of his pictures were hung at the Salon. One of these, "The Cloud," was reproduced in |Photograms." |The Cloud" was amongst the best pictures in "Photograms" for that year; this picture is one of the illustrations in this book. It is of daring and original composition, and was received enthusiastically by the leading artists' photographers in London.

Since the year 1914, Kauffmann has sent no pictures for exhibition abroad. During this period, however, he has produced his finest work. He has spent considerable time in the beautiful Healesville district, where the statliness of the gum tree and enchanting vistas leading to the surrounding hills have attracted his artistic mind. The ti-tree, which abounds on the foreshores of the bay, from Hampton to beyond Sandringham, has also been a favourite subject.

If further proof is needed to show with what artistry Kauffmann interprets nature, it will be found in his beautiful series of ti-tree studies. He has transformed what is to the lay mind, commonplace landscape, with stunted and misshapen trees, into scenes of Elysian charm. These gnarled and wind-tossed trees pictured by Kauffmann in bold, simple silhoutte against the placid water of the bay, or the silvered atmosphere of evening, are poetic and artistic creations. Surely this is Art, for it was Emmerson who wrote:

“In landscapes the artist should give the suggestion of a fairer creation than we know. The details, the prose of nature, he should omit, and give us only the spirit and splendor.”

.      .      .      .


An artist of some note in Australia, in expressing his opinion on Kauffmann's pictures, remarked: " Oh, yes, they're all right, but there is too much fake." What he should have said was that they were too like a painter's interpretation of nature, and too little like photographs.

Strangely enough, the painters have been the principal objectors to the application of hand work or " fake" in photographs. As an instance of this prejudice, it may be allowable to digress a little from the main subject of this work.

Some years ago, when the American Salon was first formed, a jury of notable painters was asked to judge the work submitted for their exhibition. They immediately quibbled over their non-photographic and painter-like appearance, and asked whether they were to judge them as photograms or paintings, expressing their willingness to do either. The photographers could not decide, so the painters judged them as photographs, ruthlessly rejecting everything that had any traces of hand work.

Since that time, however, this prejudice has mostly disappeared.

With regard to Kauffmann's work, no criticism that implies that the pictures are “faked " photographs, could be wider of the mark; with few exceptions, his pictures are entirely free from all traces of hand work, either on the negative or the print. Kauffmann believes that it is not a question as to the legitimacy of hand work, but as freedom is a vital principle of art, the end must justify the means. Should the occasion arise, as it sometimes does, he has no scruples in applying all the skill at his command to eliminate or alter anything that marred the beauty of his subject.

After all, if one has given sufficient study to the subject to acquire a sound knowledge of art principles, such as the painter is supposed to possess, surely he is entitled to use it in the manipulation of his negatives, or in controlling the prints.

Kauffmann's watch word has always been, "get it in the negative" to accomplish this it is, of course, very necessary to have a preconceived idea as to what the exact result is to be.

Herein lies the necessity for a sound art training and an exhaustive study of the principles of Art.

Kauffmann's negatives are not the result of chance, his composition and his subject are considered, studied and arranged, as a painter arranges and designs his pictures.

There is nothing “tricky” or “theatrical” in his productions, no sensational effects; they are notable for their calm and beautiful dignity, and simple, chaste expression, of some subtle phase of nature, selected with a trained artistic sight.

In stressing the importance of the study of art and its principles, the serious pictorial worker must take it as a "sine qua non" that a sound knowledge of technique is the first essential.

All sound development must come from an appreciation of good technique to an appreciation of artistic possibilities.

If then, any good technical workers are inspired by the beautiful pictures in this book, to develop and train such artistic talent as they possess, one object of this publication will have been accomplished.


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